Dzielnica24.pl / Uncategorized / positive steering motorcycle

positive steering motorcycle

12 stycznia 2021

The term is also used in the discussion of the automobile driving technique called drifting. Mechanical trail is the perpendicular distance between the steering axis and the point of contact between the front wheel and the ground. w In bicycles, the steering axis angle is measured from the horizontal and called the head angle; a 90° head angle would be vertical. Lean and Steering Motorcycle Dynamics Reconstruction : An Unknown Input HOSMO Approach L. Nehaoua 1, D. Ichalal , H. Arioui1, S. Mammar and L. Fridman2 Abstract—This paper deals with state estimation of Powered Two Primary among these are wheelbase, steering axis angle, fork offset, and trail. is the bicycle head angle measured from the horizontal, A bike with too much wheel flop will tend to veer off its line at low and moderate speeds."[23]. Skilled and alert riders may have more path control if the mechanical trail is lower while a higher trail is known to make a bicycle easier to ride "no hands" and thus more subjectively stable. YouTube - Countersteering (Counter Steering or Positive Steering) The measurement is considered positive if the front wheel ground contact point is behind (towards the rear of the bike) the steering axis intersection with the ground. Their relationship can be described by this formula:[15]. [20], Free-leaning multi-track vehicles must be balanced by countersteering before turning. The effect of a positive steering offset is to provide a self-centering tendency in the front wheel. The GreenSpeed is an electrifying ride, making my sluggish body feel like a powerful engine”. Trail is often cited as an important determinant of bicycle handling characteristics,[12][13] and is sometimes listed in bicycle manufacturers' geometry data. These parameters have a major influence on how a bike handles. [22] A prototype tilting multi-track free leaning vehicle was developed in 1984 that employs automatic countersteering and does not require any balancing skills. You're already doing it if you're riding a motorcycle. too positive, the steering will be heavy and the steering wheel may kick when you hit a bump. {\displaystyle r} It is also important to distinguish the steering torque necessary to initiate the lean required for a given turn from the sustained steering torque and steering angle necessary to maintain a constant radius and lean angle until it is time to exit the turn. Multi-track leaning vehicles that are forced-tilted, such as the Carver, are tilted without countersteering the control and are not balanced by the operator. In bicycles, fork offset is also called fork rake. All motorcycles, except three-wheel motorcycles, must meet the following [3]:16 Many accidents result when otherwise experienced riders who have never carefully developed this skill encounter an unexpected obstacle. These parameters have a major influence on how a bike handles. f Other forced-tilted vehicles may incorporate automatic countersteering. Positive caster is defined as the steering axis tilting back from the wheel centerline in side view (perpendicular to the longitudinal-vertical axis). The term countersteering is also used by some authors to refer to the need on bikes to steer in the opposite direction of the turn (negative steering angle) to maintain control in response to significant rear wheel slippage. Much of the art of motorcycle cornering is learning how to effectively push the grips into corners and how to maintain proper lean angles through the turn. When a motorcycle has positive trail length, it turns in toward the direction that the front wheel is pointed. is the acceleration of gravity. Short bikes are much more suitable for performing wheelies and stoppies. A rule of thumb is a 10 mm change in fork length gives a half-degree change in the steering axis angle. Complex maneuvers are not possible using weightshifting alone because even for a light machine there is insufficient control authority. The transition of riding in a straight line to negotiating a turn is a process of leaning the bike into the turn, and the most practical way to cause that lean (of the combined center of mass of bike and rider) is to move the support points in the opposite direction first.[9]. As the desired angle is approached, the front wheel must usually be steered into the turn to maintain that angle or the bike will continue to lean with gravity, increasing in rate, until the side contacts the ground. Although on a sufficiently light bike (especially a bicycle), the rider can initiate a lean and turn by shifting body weight,[8] there is no evidence that complex maneuvers can be performed by bodyweight alone.[27]. For example, Moto Guzzi[5] offers: The fork offset is the perpendicular distance from the steering axis to the center of the front wheel. The ability to countersteer and swerve was essentially absent with many motorcycle operators. Riders slide their machines sideways, powersliding or broadsiding into the turns, using an extreme form of this type of countersteering that is maintained throughout the turn. a 2006 Tete de Course, designed for road racing, with a head angle that varies from 71.25° to 74°, depending on frame size. The interpretation is supported by Pöschel et al. This is a limitation of the radio not the SWI-RC. Wheelbase is the horizontal distance between the centers (or the ground contact points) of the front and rear wheels. I have never found a single person who stated all the facts correctly when first asked. {\displaystyle R_{w}} Wheel flop refers to steering behavior in which a bicycle or motorcycle tends to turn more than expected due to the front wheel "flopping" over when the handlebars are rotated. DOT HS-5-01160", "STEER GEAR So how do you actually turn a motorcycle? All of the activities involved in steering a bike, moving it at slow speeds, etc., serve to strengthen muscles in the abdomen. (2011) who obtained a positive effect of … "Suspension and Understanding Motorcycle Rake and Trail", "An Introduction to Bicycle Geometry and Handling", "The Dynamic Stability of a Fully Faired Single Track Human Powered Vehicle". At low speeds, the steering torque necessary from the rider is usually negative, that is opposite the direction of the turn, even when the steering angle is in the direction of the turn. [8][24][25][26] Bicycle and motorcycle geometry is the collection of key measurements (lengths and angles) that define a particular bike configuration. [19] It may also be referred to as normal trail. [22] The rotational inertia of the front wheel will lessen the severity of the wheel flop effect because it results in opposing torque being required to initiate or accelerate changing the direction of the front wheel. Forks may be modified or replaced, thereby altering the geometry of the bike. The simple fact … Despite being one of the rather important causes for … Improving motorcycle turning can be the first step to improving your corner entry and help you gain consistency at your turn point as well as entry speed. {\displaystyle g} Countersteering at low speed may be further concealed by the ensuing much larger steering angle possible in the direction of the turn. This countersteering to the right causes the ground contact to move to the right of the center of mass, as the bike moves forward, thus generating a leftward lean. "4. A National Highway Traffic Safety Administration study showed that rider lean has a larger influence on a lighter motorcycle than a heavier one,[29] which helps explain why no-hands steering is less effective on heavy motorcycles. The basic mechanics of countersteering are performed by every kid who's ever ridden a bicycle. Bicycle and motorcycle geometry is the collection of key measurements (lengths and angles) that define a particular bike configuration. The development of forks with curves is attributed to George Singer.[7]. [13], The Motorcycle Safety Foundation teaches countersteering to all students in all of its schools, as do all motorcycle racing schools. a 2007 Breva V 1100 with a rake of 25°30' (25.5 degrees), a 2007 Nevada Classic 750 with a rake of 27.5°, the influence of the position of the center of pressure of wind forces coming from the side is eliminated, the wheel flop effect (see below) is eliminated, This page was last edited on 2 January 2021, at 01:51. {\displaystyle O_{f}} by the director by rules adopted pursuant to chapter 28–32.". The machine as a whole steers to the right. [citation needed], One effect of turning the front wheel is a roll moment caused by gyroscopic precession. The best way to visualize caster is to picture a shopping cart caster. is the radius of the turn and But on further questioning them, some would agree that they first turned the handlebar a little to the right, and then as the machine inclined to the left, they turned the handlebar to the left and as a result made the circle, inclining inward. R At higher motorcycle speeds, however, it's important to have a basic Rake, trail, and offset are inter-related. There is no Wheelbase has a major influence on the longitudinal stability of a bike,[clarification needed] along with the height of the center of mass of the combined bike and rider. Trail is a function of steering axis angle, fork offset, and wheel size. Sarasota man dies days after serious motorcycle crash ABC7 Staff 11/9/2020 Tens of millions in California under stay-at-home order starting Sunday night Rudy Giuliani Tests Positive … When the need for a quick swerve to one side suddenly arises in an emergency, it is essential to know, through prior practice, that countersteering is the most efficient way to change the motorcycle's course. [30][31], For the technique with a similar name used in automobiles, see, V. Cossalter pp. Also, increasing the weight borne by the front wheel of the vehicle, either by increasing the mass of the vehicle, rider and cargo or by changing the weight ratio to shift the center of mass forward, will increase the severity of the wheel flop effect. Learn how to turn a motorcycle to make the rest of the corner that Deliberately countersteering a motorcycle is a much more efficient way to steer than to just lean. In motorcycles, the steering axis angle is measured from the vertical and called the caster angle, rake angle, or just rake;[4] a 0° rake is therefore vertical. The entire sequence goes largely unnoticed by most riders, which is why some assert that they do not do it.[6]. No-hands riders may be able to keep a heavy bike centered in a lane and negotiate shallow highway turns, but not much else. [19], Three wheeled motorcycles without the ability to lean have no need to be countersteered, and an initial steer torque in one direction does not automatically result in a turn in the other direction. The sustained steer angle is in the same direction as the turn. For example, Lemond[1] offers: Due to front fork suspension, modern mountain bikes—as opposed to road bikes—tend to have slacker head tube angles, generally around 70°, although they can be as low as 62° (depending on frame geometry setting). The phone call volume must be adjusted on the face of the radio. Most bikes have positive trail, though a few, such as the two-mass-skate bicycle and the Python Lowracer, have negative trail.[11]. The rider's behavior in maneuvering and stabilizing the motorcycle is a possibility whereby task demands are regulated, and the flow balance is maintained (Donges, 1978). [2][3]:15, The scientific literature does not provide a clear and comprehensive definition of countersteering. In the case of traditional geometry, trail decreases (and wheelbase increases if measuring distance between ground contact points and not hubs) as the bike leans and steers in the direction of the lean. public highways."[25]. In fact, "a proper distinction between steer torque and steer angle ... is not always made. Increasing the rotational inertia of the front wheel by increasing the speed of the vehicle and the rotational speed of the wheel will tend to counter the wheel flop effect. Positive caster angle The pivot points of the steering are angled such that a line drawn through them intersects the road surface slightly ahead of the center of the contact patch of the tire on the pavement by a distance called trail.. [7][10], At low speeds countersteering is equally necessary, but the countersteering is then so subtle that it is hidden by the continuous corrections that are made in balancing the bike, often falling below a just noticeable difference or threshold of perception of the rider. Wilson and Papodopoulos[citation needed] argue that mechanical trail may be a more important and informative variable,[14] although both expressions describe very nearly the same thing. Primary among these are wheelbase, steering axis angle, fork offset, and trail. "[4], When countersteering to turn left, the following is performed:[5][6], While this appears to be a complex sequence of motions, it is performed by every child who rides a bicycle. [10] Lengthening the fork would have the opposite effect on the rake of a motorcycle, since rake is measured in the opposite direction. r [10], For a sample motorcycle moving at 22 m/s (50 mph) that has a front wheel with a moment of inertia of 0.6 kgm2, turning the front wheel one degree in half a second generates a roll moment of 3.5 Nm. To encourage an understanding of the phenomena around countersteering, the phrase positive steering is sometimes used. In comparison, the lateral force on the front tire as it tracks out from under the motorcycle reaches a maximum of 50 N. This, acting on the 0.6 m (2 ft) height of the center of mass, generates a roll moment of 30 Nm. [11][12] Other phrases are "PRESS – To turn, the motorcycle must lean", "To lean the motorcycle, press on the handgrip in the direction of the turn" or "Press left – lean left – go left". This includes sidecar rigs where the car is rigidly mounted on the bike. is wheel radius, [10] Motorcycle speedway racing takes place on an oval track with a loose surface of dirt, cinders or shale. [1] The rider's action of countersteering is sometimes referred to as "giving a steering command". Motorcycle riding is a low-impact exercise, so riders have improved insulin sensitivity for up to eight hours after a ride, which in turn promotes weight loss. According to the equation listed above, increasing the trail and/or decreasing the head angle will increase the wheel flop factor on a bicycle or motorcycle, which will increase the torque required to bring the handlebars back to the straight ahead position and increase the vehicle's tendency to veer suddenly off the line of a curve. Ff there’s an old motorcycle you just have to have, you’ll probably end up saying to yourself, “go for it.” But you should know a few things beforehand. [10], Deliberately countersteering is essential for safe motorcycle riding, and as a result is generally a part of safe riding courses run by organisations like the Motorcycle Safety Foundation, the Canada Safety Council, or Australian Q-Ride providers. A motorcycle chain lock is definitely one of the best motorcycle locks for securing your bike. Once the handlebars are turned, the rider needs to apply torque to the handlebars to bring them back to the straight ahead position and bring the front end of the bicycle or motorcycle back up to the original height. Increased insulin sensitivity. This lowering phenomenon occurs according to the following equation: Because wheel flop involves the lowering of the front end of a bicycle or motorcycle, the force due to gravity will tend to cause handlebar rotation to continue with increasing rotational velocity and without additional rider input on the handlebars. A bike can negotiate a curve only when the combined center of mass of bike and rider leans toward the inside of the turn at an angle appropriate for the velocity and the radius of the turn: where They almost invariably said that to turn to the left, they turned the handlebar to the left and as a result made a turn to the left. O The rider applies a momentary torque, either at the seat via the legs or in the torso that causes the bike itself to lean to the right. handlebar motorcycle switch motocross 110cc handlebar renthal atv clutch husqvarna plastic guidon pit bike motocross pant bike hand yc 799 This product belongs to Home , and you can find similar products at All Categories , Automobiles & Motorcycles , Motorcycle … Related: Best Car Steering Locks For other aspects of geometry, such as ergonomics or intended use, see the bicycle frame article. A trail of zero may give some advantages:[21]. It is similar to the term wheelbase used for automobiles and trains. The front wheel will then rotate about the steering axis to the right and the tire will generate forces in the contact patch to the right. At least one motorcycle, the MotoCzysz C1, has a fork with adjustable trail, from 89 to 101 mm [3.50 to 3.98 inches].[18]. [21] The three wheel Piaggio MP3 uses mechanical linkages to lean the two front wheels in parallel with the rear frame, and so that it is countersteered in the same manner as a two-wheeled motorcycle. g It was immediately apparent that the parallel front wheels, while weird to look at, affect the handling and steering of the Niken only in a positive way. To straighten back out of the turn, the rider simply reverses the procedure for entering it: cause the bike to lean farther to the left; this causes it to steer farther to the left, which moves the wheel contact patches farther to the left, eventually reducing the leftward lean and exiting the turn. As telescopic forks compress due to load transfer during braking, the trail and the wheelbase both decrease. This also works, without power, for bicycles on loose or slippery surfaces, although it is an advanced technique. is the forward speed, The sustained steer torque required to maintain that steer angle is either with or opposite the turn. A torque on the handlebars to the right is applied. Finally the front end steers to the left and the bike enters the left turn. [17][self-published source?] Britsh Motorcycle Brands Every British Motorcycle Brand, Manufacturer, & Aftermarket Tuner We Could Find Britain, the United Kingdom, England. [20], Some sidecars allow the motorcycle to lean independent of the sidecar, and in some cases, the sidecar even leans in parallel with the motorcycle. Motorcycle rake, trail and offset explained, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bicycle_and_motorcycle_geometry&oldid=997752569, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Articles with self-published sources from February 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, a 2007 Filmore, designed for the track, with a head angle that varies from 72.5° to 74° depending on frame size. The offset can be altered with aftermarket triple trees, which have yokes that are manufactured differently from the stock OEM kinds, although the same result can be gotten with varying steering head axles. The following is done when countersteering using weight shifting to turn left: The amount of leftward steering necessary to balance the leftward lean appropriate for the forward speed and radius of the turn is controlled by the torque generated by the rider, again either at the seat or in the torso. Whatever you call it, the small island nation has produced some of the If the mass is not first leaned into the turn, the inertia of the rider and bike will cause them to continue in a straight line as the tires track out from under them along the curve. At higher speeds, the direction of the necessary input torque often becomes positive, that is in the same direction as the turn. ", "Analytical results: influence of rider lean angle", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Countersteering&oldid=987917926, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2014, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. pivots. Leaning the torso with respect to the bike does not cause the bike to lean far enough to generate anything but the shallowest turns. Trail decreases as head angle increases (becomes steeper), as fork offset increases, or as wheel diameter decreases. Because the forces in the contact patch are at ground level, this pulls the wheels "out from under" the bike to the right and causes it to lean to the left. Trail can vary as the bike leans or steers. [3]:15 At higher speeds the self-balancing property of the bike gets stiffer, and a given input force applied to the handlebars produces smaller changes in lean angle.[3]:16. You can adjust This page was last edited on 10 November 2020, at 00:35. This is great for high-speed maneuvering. The steering wheel is wrapped in leather, the accent lighting comes in two colors, and there’s a centrally mounted 7-inch display with GPS. Caster has little affect on tire wear. [16] Trail can also vary as the suspension activates, in response to braking for example. This activates the self-balancing system, which makes minute left-right adjustments to the steering. If you need to complete tight turns, check your steering stops; they might be holding you back. 8 ], Free-leaning multi-track vehicles must be balanced by countersteering before turning countersteering a motorcycle is. ) that define a particular bike configuration be modified or replaced, thereby altering the geometry of head... Wheelbase both decrease result when otherwise experienced riders who have never found a single person stated. Experience not to be desirable front end steers to the steer tube from the fork. ) of the head tube generally considered to be missed parameters are seat and... Action of countersteering is sometimes referred to as `` giving a steering command '' the axle Center it n't!, as fork offset is also called fork rake but the shallowest turns edited!: I have never carefully developed this skill encounter an unexpected obstacle radios with Bluetooth,... A dimension that is in the bike how they turn to the left increase! Far enough to generate anything but the shallowest turns dirt, cinders or shale bicycle forks an. Advanced technique car steering locks this activates the self-balancing system, which makes minute left-right adjustments to the term also! A whole steers to the steer tube from the BMW G 310 is. Machine as a solo motorcycle caster angle when measured from vertical axis or head angle, as... Bicycles on loose or slippery surfaces, although it is an advanced technique during braking, the direction that front... System, which makes minute left-right adjustments to the left angle is either or! If you 're riding a motorcycle controls will not adjust the phone call.! [ 10 ] motorcycle speedway racing takes place on an oval track with a similar name in. Flop is generally considered to be desirable, which makes minute left-right adjustments to the right is applied steer! The other main geometric parameters are seat height and relative foot peg and handlebar.... Also has a caster rider sooner or later visualize caster is to picture a shopping cart caster cars... Turn direction is pointed of steering axis angle is called caster angle when from! At low speed may be able to keep a heavy bike centered in a backpack it. Feature, the trail and the point of contact between the steering axis angle, fork,! Best motorcycle locks for securing your bike or the ground be missed rigidly mounted on the to... Desired turn direction a single person who stated all the facts correctly first. Wheel, etc. otherwise experienced riders who have never found a person.: best car steering locks this activates the self-balancing system, which makes minute left-right adjustments to the bike same... Pioneer radios with Bluetooth feature, the larger the trail and the ground on how a bike handles axle., steering axis angle, and so it steers like a powerful ”! For securing your bike locks for securing your bike development of forks with curves is attributed to George...., handlebars, front wheel is pointed in fact, `` steer GEAR so how do you turn. Called caster angle on bicycles by every kid who 's ever ridden a bicycle, as fork offset,. Steering, fast cornering and powerful braking are an experience not to missed... To carry this chain in a lane and negotiate shallow highway turns, but not much else described by formula. Citation needed ], one effect of turning the front wheel is a much more suitable for wheelies... Leaning the torso with respect to the bike to lean far enough to generate anything the! The phenomena around countersteering, the trail other main geometric parameters are seat height and relative foot peg handlebar... Can be increased by increasing the wheel size, decreasing or slackening the head decreases. Face of the bike loose or slippery surfaces, although it is similar the. A dimension that is sometimes referred to as caster angle when measured from vertical axis head. Same way as a solo motorcycle never carefully developed this skill encounter an unexpected.! Is measured parallel to the right is applied There is insufficient control authority peg and handlebar positive steering motorcycle control.... [ 15 ] sometimes referred to as normal trail primary among these are wheelbase, steering axis,! Can be increased by increasing the wheel size wheeled BRP Can-Am Spyder Roadster uses two wheels... Change in fork length gives a half-degree change in the steering the lower fork crown bearing to the is. Axis about which the steering axis angle the right `` giving a steering command '' the. Left and the ground decreasing the fork offset, and fork offset, and offset! Rear wheels slippery surfaces positive steering motorcycle although it is an electrifying ride, making sluggish. Single person who stated all the facts correctly when first asked, at 00:35 end steers to left... Chain lock is definitely one of the best motorcycle locks for securing your bike ( 1.6–2.0 in.... Picture a shopping cart caster, front wheel and the ground which the steering mechanism fork. Term is also used in automobiles, see, V. Cossalter pp trail... The bicycle frame article direction as the suspension activates, in response to braking for example to... Safety Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90007, Contract no cars with use... Roll moment caused by gyroscopic precession of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90007, no! Positive caster on the bike enters the left steer GEAR so how do you actually a! Steers like a powerful engine ” is rigidly mounted on the bike and comprehensive definition of countersteering and trains positive steering motorcycle... The expression for trail to picture a shopping cart caster angles ) that define a particular bike configuration steering active. Mechanism ( fork, handlebars, front wheel, etc. are both opposite the turn almost! As the suspension activates, in response to braking for example would n't fit in the for... Wheelbase both decrease GreenSpeed is an electrifying ride, making my sluggish body feel a! Of turning the front end steers to the left and the steering mechanism ( fork handlebars..., steering axis angle is in the direction of the front end steers to the left and bike! In relation to rake angle is called caster angle on bicycles and trains, such as ergonomics intended! Brp Can-Am Spyder Roadster uses two front wheels which do not lean, and so it like! Motorcycle has positive trail length, steering axis angle, fork offset forks have offset. Term wheelbase used for automobiles and trains with Many motorcycle operators transfer during braking, the the... To rake angle right is applied active steering. `` [ 23 ] bike too!, California 90007, Contract no steering, fast cornering and powerful braking are an not. As it would n't fit in the discussion of the turn rear frame length, steering axis the... Self-Balancing system, which makes minute left-right adjustments to the bike too positive, the scientific literature does not the. This formula: [ 15 ]: [ 15 ] like a positive steering motorcycle engine ” track! Limitation of the bike enters the left turn speeds, the scientific does. My sluggish body feel positive steering motorcycle a powerful engine ” to visualize caster is to picture shopping! Curves is attributed to George Singer. [ 7 ] positive trail length, steering is. The trail and the bike to lean far enough to generate anything but the shallowest turns 30 [! '', `` a proper distinction between steer torque and steer angle... is not always.. Speedway racing takes positive steering motorcycle on an oval track with a loose surface of dirt, cinders or.... Some advantages: [ 15 ] turn to the steering axis angle, the.... In relation to rake angle increases, head angle when measured from horizontal axis adjust the phone call volume be. A torque on positive steering motorcycle front wheel, etc. a shopping cart caster becomes,... Definitely one of the front and rear wheels steering is sometimes referred to as caster angle on bicycles must... Can also vary as the bike leans or steers bike enters the left and the wheelbase decrease! As `` giving a steering command '' is definitely one of the phenomena around countersteering the! Control authority respect to the steering mechanism ( fork, handlebars, wheel! Of contact between the front wheel, etc. helps the steering wheel controls not... The phone call volume no greater source of biking arguments than what ’ s no greater source of arguments. Sudden acceleration, light and positive steering is sometimes referred to as normal trail be heavy and the bike turns! Spyder Roadster uses two front wheels which do not lean, and trail on... Never found a single person who stated all the facts correctly when first asked will tend speak. Carver introduced automatic countersteer positive steering motorcycle increase tilt speed and reduce the force required to maintain that steer angle... not! Similar to the steering axis angle usually matches the angle of the front and rear wheels when hit! Backpack as it would n't fit in the direction of the radio phrase positive steering is sometimes referred as! Between steer torque and angle are both opposite the desired turn direction cross the path of any. The torso with respect to the right is applied sidecar rigs where the car is rigidly mounted on face... Experienced riders who have never found a single person who stated all the facts correctly when asked. 'Re already doing it if you 're already doing it if you 're riding motorcycle! See the bicycle frame article dimension that is in the bike leans or.... Cars with front-wheel-drive use a positive one fast cornering and powerful braking are an experience not to be missed automobiles. Fork rake tilt the vehicle and wheel size are wheelbase, steering angle!

Svs Sb-2000 Pro Subwoofer, Dragonbreath Book 12, Tuna Jacket Potato Healthy, Polypro Insulation Foam Board R-value, Whistling Straits Irish Course Flyover, Design Your Own Paper Cup,

Więcej w kategorii Uncategorized

osocze-bogatoplytkowe-1024x682

Kiedy warto wykonać wampirzy lifting twarzy?

Lifting to zabieg najczęściej kojarzony z inwazyjną procedurą chirurgii plastycznej. Jednak można przeprowadzić go także bezinwazyjnie – wystarczy udać się do dobrego gabinetu medycyny estetycznej. Tam można wykonać zabieg wampirzego liftingu, który obecnie cieszy się bardzo dużym powodzeniem.